This small tree has a stout, short trunk (up to 12" in diameter) and widely spreading to ascending branches. The bark of the trunk and larger branches is grey and smooth, and smaller branches are greyish brown, smooth, and hairless. The flowers have a pleasant fragrance. Fertilized flowers often develop into fleshy berries about 1" across. Sometimes new saplings are produced from underground runners. The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract bees, various flies, and other insects. The fruits are eaten by mammals primarily, especially red and gray foxes, that help to spread the large seeds to new locations. Birds occasionally peck at the fruits, but they do not distribute the seeds.
Soil Type: loamy clay soil/ sandy with organic matter
Soil Conditions: Mesic- Dry
Flower Color: White
Height: to 25'
Light: Part Shade
Credits: Info & Photos courtesy of Illinoiswildflowers.info & wikipedia non-copyrighted usage.